Dedicated funding for efforts that block pathways of movement for AIS prevents their introduction and spread.
Preventing the introduction of new non-native species is the most cost-effective approach to minimize future threats from AIS. Prevention activities aim to reduce the risk of uptake, movement, and introduction of non-native species, and may be applied to any of the pathways that introduce AIS into the Great Lakes basin: trade in live organisms, recreational activities, shipping, and canals and waterways.
Funding for prevention activities tends to focus on pathways, rather than individual species. Different species can be moved through each pathway, and some pathways may overlap in what species are moved (for example, an aquatic plant that is released from an aquarium into a lake and is then caught in the motor of a recreational boat and moved to another lake). Pathways may also differ between jurisdictions, such as a species that may be present in one jurisdiction and able to move through canals and waterways there but is not present in waters of another jurisdiction and therefore unable to spread via that pathway. Further, research is still ongoing to understand exactly what species are moved through which pathways. For these reasons, effective prevention activities at a pathway scale are more likely to reduce the number of species introductions, regardless of what those individual species are.
ANNUAL GLRI FUNDING FOR PREVENTION
ANNUAL GLRI PREVENTION FUNDING FOR PATHWAYS
Prevention activities across all possible pathways of movement for AIS are imperative to reducing future invasions. These may efforts include developing and testing prevention technology for ballast water in the shipping pathway, coordinated boat wash and inspection events in the recreational boating pathway, conducting risk assessments for potential AIS in the trade in live organisms pathway, and designing effective barriers to limit natural spread of species in the canals pathway. Each pathway is unique and has different points at which prevention activities can take place, making it imperative for prevention programs to understand the full scope of the pathway they are trying to restrict movement through and address prevention activities at as many points in the pathway as is feasible.
RECIPIENTS OF GLRI FUNDING FOR PREVENTION
Dispersing funding to a variety of partners ensures that the responsibility of prevention activities is spread between organizations, rather than concentrated within one agency, and allows for unique project goals and methods. One organization may be better suited than another to conduct particular activities, whether due to geographic jurisdiction, research facilities, or other factors, further encouraging funders to target a wide array of recipient groups to ensure the highest-quality prevention programs.
The information presented here builds on a database of AIS funding originally developed by the Great Lakes Panel on Aquatic Nuisance Species.
Diversity of Funding Sources
Funding sources for AIS work are varied and include grant programs administered by non-profit organizations, private sector funding initiatives, and base agency budgets set annually through state, provincial, and federal legislatures. Federal funding in the U.S. includes the Great Lakes Restoration Initiative (GLRI), which was established and funded in 2010 to address the major threats to Great Lakes ecosystems and drinking waters, including AIS. For more information about GLRI and funding, visit www.glri.us.
GLRI Data Source Limitations
GLRI data presented here is derived from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (U.S. EPA)Environmental Accomplishments in the Great Lakes (EAGL) database of federally-dispersed GLRI funds (i.e., FY2010-2015 funding dispersed directly to recipients for project implementation), including associated data metrics and project descriptions. A set of search terms and functions relevant to AIS research and management was used to identify AIS projects within the EAGL database. The information presented here does not include funding data for invasive carp projects. For complete information about Asian Carp Action Plan funding and projects, visit www.asiancarp.us